10 Characteristics of the atmosphere

The atmosphere is the soda layer that envelops a planet. In the case of Earth, the atmosphere is essential for life, as it provides a series of physical and chemical characteristics that support the existence and development of living beings.

It also acts as a protective barrier to solar radiation and other dangers of outer space.

10 features of the atmosphere

  1. Composition: The Earth’s atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and traces of other gases, such as argon, carbon dioxide and water vapor.
  2. Stratification: The atmosphere is divided into several layers, such as the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere, each with its own characteristics and functions.
  3. Atmospheric pressure: The atmosphere exerts pressure on the Earth’s surface, which is fundamental to the sustenance of life and the balance of fluids within organisms.
  4. Temperature: Temperature varies in the different layers of the atmosphere. In general, it decreases with altitude in the troposphere, remains stable in the stratosphere and increases in the thermosphere due to the absorption of solar radiation.
  5. Greenhouse effect: The atmosphere retains a part of the heat from the Sun, creating a natural greenhouse effect that keeps the planet’s temperature within life-appropriate ranges.
  6. Atmospheric circulation: Atmospheric movements, such as winds and convection currents, redistribute heat and humidity around the globe, influencing climate patterns and ecosystem distribution.
  7. Wind: Moving air is essential for the dispersion of pollutants, plant pollination, maritime navigation and wind power generation.
  8. Radiation protection: The atmosphere blocks much of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun, avoiding damage to living things and contributing to the formation of the ozone layer in the stratosphere.
  9. Water cycle: The atmosphere is key in the hydrological cycle, allowing the evaporation of the water, its transport through the clouds and subsequent precipitation in the form of rain, snow or hail.
  10. Meteorite absorption: The atmosphere acts as a protective barrier against objects from outer space, as most meteorites disintegrate before reaching the surface due to friction with the air.


The atmosphere plays a key role in life on Earth. Its characteristics and properties provide favorable conditions for the development of living beings and allow for a wide variety of ecosystems.

In addition, the atmosphere regulates the climate, distributes heat around the planet, protects against harmful radiation and allows the circulation of nutrients and the dispersion of pollen and seeds. Without an adequate atmosphere, life as we know it would not be possible.

Understanding and preserving the characteristics of the atmosphere is therefore essential to ensure the sustainability of our planet and the well-being of future generations.