Mountains are elevated geological formations that form from geological processes. They are home to various ecosystems and species, and are also important to humanity as a source of natural resources.
Some common mountain characteristics are described below:
- Elevation: The main feature of the mountains is that they rise significantly from the ground. The elevation is measured in meters or feet from sea level.
- Geology: The mountains are made up of layers of rocks and earth. These materials can be ancient and be many millions of years old, and can include sediment, volcanic rocks and igneous rocks.
- Relief: The mountains have a variety of shapes, including peaks, valleys, canyons, plateaus and plains. These forms are due to geological processes such as erosion and tectonic activity of the plates.
- Climate: Mountains have a variable climate that is often colder and wetter than in the surrounding areas. Mountain height and orientation influence the local climate.
- Biodiversity: Mountains are home to a wide variety of animal and plant ecosystems and species, many of which are unique to that region.
- Human Use: Mountains are important to humanity as a source of natural resources, such as water, forests, minerals and energy. They are also popularly used for recreational activities, such as hiking and skiing.
How are they classified?
Mountains can be classified in various ways, including:
- Because of its height and prominence: This is one of the most common ways of classifying mountains. The height refers to the elevation of a mountain above sea level, while the prominence refers to the height of the mountain from the lowest point between that mountain and the next highest mountain.
- For their geological formation: Mountains can be classified according to how they formed, such as volcanic mountains, igneous mountains, ancient mountains and mountains of the mountain range.
- Due to its geographical location: The mountains can be classified by their location in a geographical region, such as the Himalayan Mountains, the Alps, the Andes, etc.
- Due to their use and function: Mountains can be classified for their use and function, such as recreational mountains, mountains for agricultural activities, mountains for mining, etc.
The highest mountains in the world
- Mount Everest: It is the highest mountain in the world, with a height of 8,848 meters (29,029 feet) above sea level. It is located in the Himalayan Mountains, in Nepal and Tibet, and is a popular challenge for climbers.
- K2: Also known as Mount Godwin-Austen, it is the second tallest mountain in the world, with a height of 28,251 feet (8,61 per . It is located on the border between Pakistan and China, and is known for its difficulty for climbers.
- Kangchenjunga: At a height of 8,586 meters (28,169 feet), is the third highest mountain in the world. It is located in eastern Nepal and is one of the most revered mountains in that region.
- Lhotse: With a height of 8,516 meters (27,94 feet), it is the fourth highest mountain in the world. It is located in the Himalayan Range, near Mount Everest, and is a popular challenge for climbers.
- Makalu: At a height of 8,485 (27,838 feet), it is the fifth highest mountain in the world. It is located in the Himalayan Cordillera, in Nepal and Tibet, and is known for its isolated form and difficulty for climbers.
These are just some of the highest mountains in the world. The Himalayan Range is home to most of the world’s highest mountains, and is one of the most mountainous regions on the planet.